Papers and Book Chapters

paper-bookThis category consists of published and unpublished articles and book chapters about Korean Americans and other overseas Korean populations. While there are many important and varied published works on Korean Americans, there is also a notable amount of writings that have been accepted by journals or edited books that have not yet gone to press. One of the many benefits of the data bank is the convenience with which we can update the content, thus we feel that it is especially important to include these newer journal articles and studies. We will also include some Korean-language articles focusing on Koreans settled in other countries, from the journal Studies of Koreans Abroad.

This English-language article, titled "Landing of the Wave: Hallyu in Peru and Brazil," examines the spread of South Korean pop culture to Latin America, specifically to Peru and Brazil. Nusta Carranza Ko, Song No, Jeong-Nam Kim, and Ronald Gobbi Simoes (all affiliated with Purdue University) co-authored this article, which was originally published in Development and Society (the journal of The Institute for Social Development and Policy Research at Seoul National University in Korea).

Read the authors' abstract below for further description of the article. We would like to thank Development and Society and the authors for granting us permission to post this article on Korean American Data Bank.     

"What began as the spread of South Korean popular culture in parts of East and Southeast Asia in the late 1990s, Hallyu ("the Korean wave"), made its landing and mark in a new cultural context in Latin America years later nearing the end of the first decade of the 21st Century. But how did Hallyu suddenly emerge in this part of the international system? What factors led to its development? The results of our field research findings in Peru and Brazil brings the argument away from the cultural proximity for both states with high levels of Asian migration (i.e. Japanese and Chinese) and provides an interesting insight into discussions on socioeconomic grounds that may have influenced individuals' interests towards Hallyu."

Keywords: Latin America, Hallyu, Korean Wave, Korean Culture

This article was originally published in Development and Society, Vol. 43, Issue No. 2, December 2014, pages 297-350.

This English-language article, titled "Twice-Migrant Chinese and Indians in the United States: Their Origins and Attachment to Their Original Homeland," examines diasporic ethnic Chinese and Asian Indians who have re-migrated from outside of their respective homelands to the United States (hence the term, "twice-migrant"). Pyong Gap Min (Professor of Sociology at CUNY Queens College and The Graduate Center) and Sung S. Park (Ph.D. Candidate in Sociology at UCLA) co-authored this article, which was originally published in Development and Society (the journal of The Institute for Social Development and Policy Research at Seoul National University in Korea).

Read the authors' abstract below for further description of the article. We would like to thank Development and Society and the authors for granting us permission to post this article on Korean American Data Bank.

"China and India, the two most populated countries in the world, also have the largest overseas populations scattered all over the world. Following the global migration flow, many overseas Chinese and Indians have re-migrated from their diasporic communities to the United States in the post-1965 immigration era. This article, focusing on twice-migrant Chinese and Indians in the United States, has two interrelated objectives. First, it shows twice-migrant Chinese and Indians' regions and countries of origin that roughly reflect their global dispersals. Second, it examines their attachment to their original homeland using two indicators: use of ethnic language (a Chinese or an Indian language) at home and their choice of ancestry. It uses the combined 2009-2011 American Community Surveys as the primary data source. This article is significant because by using an innovative data source, it describes the origins and ethnic attachment of the two largest twice-migrant groups in the United States."

Keywords: Chinese overseas population, Indian overseas population, Re-migrants, Twice Migrants, Middleman minorities, Ethnic attachment, Middleman minority theory, Diaspora

This article was originally published in Development and Society, Vol. 43, Issue No. 2, December 2014, pages 381-401

 

This Korean-language article, titled "Content Analysis of the New York Times on Korean Restaurants from 1980 to 2005," examines Americans' perceptions of Korean restaurants by analyzing New York Times articles, which reported on 90 Korean restaurants in the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area between 1980 and 2005. The newspaper focused on a few specific New York City Korean restaurants, including Woo Lae Oak, Han Bat, Do Hwa, Bop, Cho Dang Gol, Hangawi, and Dok Suni. According to the New York Times, Americans were largely dissatisfied with the language barrier, inadequate dessert selections, shabby interiors, and other aspects of service in Korean restaurants. Additionally, the Times reported that Korean restaurants had not done a good job of promoting themselves. 

It should be noted that this article is somewhat dated. Since the original publication of this article in 2008, the Korean government has prioritized promoting Korean food as one of its global brands (alongside the Korean language and K-pop). The popularity of Korean cuisine and restaurants among non-Korean customers has exploded in the New York-New Jersey area, as well as in various other locales around the United States. Additionally, it seems that New York-New Jersey Korean restaurants have shown marked improvement in terms of service, English-fluency, interior aesthetics, and marketing/promotion.

We have previously posted other articles by Kyou-Jin Lee and Mi-Sook Cho about Korean food and restaurants on the Korean American Data Bank. Professor Pyong Gap Min, the director of RCKC, is writing a chapter on Korean food in the New York-New Jersey area for a forthcoming book, and he has benefitted immensely from this particular article.

This article was originally published in the Journal of Foodservice Management Society of Korea, Vol. 11, No. 1. We would like to thank the journal for allowing us to post this article on the Korean American Data Bank.

Below is a short excerpt from the article:

2008년 미국 외식산업은 전년도에 비해 4.4% 성장할 것으로 예측되며 전체 규모는 94만 5,000개의 업소에서 1,310만명을 고용하고 약 5,580억 달러의 매출을 올릴 것으로 예상되고 있다(NRA 2008). 미국 외식산업은 17년간 지속적으로 성장하여 현재 미국 GDP의 약 4%를 차지하는 규모가 되었다. 이에 따라 이민자들의 다양한 민족음식을 판매하는 민족음식점도 증가하고 있는 실정이다. 특히 비만이 미국인의 주요 건강문제로 대두된 이후 아시안 푸드는 저열량의 건강음식으로 자리 잡고 있다. 아시아 음식 중에서 이미 오래 전부터 뿌리내린 일식과 중식을 제외하고라도 태국과 베트남 레스토랑이 경쟁력을 높이면서 미국 전역에서 성장하고 있는 것과는 달리 한식은 여전히 소수를 위한 음식에 머물고 있는 실정이다. 미국 내 한식당은 한국인 이민자가 많은 LA의 한인타운, 뉴욕 맨해튼의 32번가 코리아타운과 뉴저지 지역에 모여 있으며 과거에는 주로 현지 한인들을 대상으로 운영되어 왔다.

 

 

 

The purpose of this research is to examine the history of bulgogi’s transition and development over the past century. While bulgogi carries on the legacy of Korean traditional roasted meat, it is simultaneously a very unique cuisine, of which the recipe and meaning have changed over time according to shifting economic and social conditions. As a result, bulgogi is not merely a simple dish; rather, the term embodies numerous symbolic meanings of Korean food culture. The origin of this seasoned roast meat can be traced back to the Goguryeo dynasty (37 BC–AD 668). In different historical periods and social contexts, bulgogi has gone through unusual and dynamic transitions of cooking methods, such as roasting and boiling. One of its first transitional periods (1920s–1960s) is marked by the use of grilled beef that originates from neobiani and the commercialized cooking process of roasting. During the developmental phase of bulgogi (1960s–1990s), bulgogi boiled in meat broth appeared, quickly gaining popularity. The phase of decline in bulgogi consumption and popularity was followed by the revival of bulgogi (after the 1990s), when it was adapted through various cooking methods.

Kyou Jin Lee is a Lecturer at Gachon University in South Korea.

Mi Sook Cho is a Professor in the Department of Nutrition Science and Food Management at Ehwa Women's University in South Korea.

This article was originally published in Korea Journal, vol. 53, no. 4 (winter 2013): pp. 168-194. We would like to thank Korea Journal for giving us permission to post this article on the Korean American Data Bank. The article is a revision of Kyou Jin Lee's Ph.D dissertation, "Korean Food Culture of Eating Meat during the Past 100 Years") at Ehwa Women's University in 2010. 

 

This study examines whether there is an earnings premium for fluent bilingualism among 1.5-generation and U.S.-born Korean Americans in the labor market. The data come from the 2009-2011 American Community Surveys, and the sample is restricted to wage and salary workers. Logged annual wage and salary income was regressed on two dummy variables for bilingual competence—bilingual with fluent English proficiency and bilingual with limited English proficiency (English monolingual as reference category), controlling for indicators of human capital and the language-use environment. Findings show greater economic returns to fluent bilingualism among 1.5-generation Korean women and U.S.-born Korean men, but there is no convincing evidence of a wage premium for fluent bilingualism among U.S.-born Korean women. Surprisingly, there is evidence of wage penalties for fluent bilingualism among 1.5-generation Korean men in certain geographic areas and occupations. These mixed findings are consistent with the recent discussion of bilingualism as both human capital and ethnicity.

Key Words: Bilingualism, Earnings, Korean American, Generation, Gender 

*This paper was originally presented at the Fourth Annual Conference of the Research Center for Korean Community at Queens College, which was held at Queens College on April 5-7, 2013. This paper was also published in Development and Society, Volume 42, Number One, June 2013. We would like to thank Development and Society for allowing us to repost this article.

 Asian Americans have fallen behind other ethnic groups with regard to political participation, despite being one of the fastest growing populations and having achieved socioeconomic advantages over the last few decades. This paper examines this puzzle by looking at a demographic and socioeconomic portrait of major Asian-American groups and their participation patterns in electoral politics. The paper focuses on a host of factors, such as group membership, generation, assimilation, and political and community contexts, that go beyond individual level attributes. The paper explores particularly how group-specific political and community contexts mediate voting behavior differently or similarly across three major Asian groups—Korean, Chinese, and Filipino Americans—based on a review of existing research, secondary data from the Current Population Surveys of 2000, 2004, and 2008, and the 2011 American Community Survey.

 

*This paper was originally presented at the Fourth Annual Conference of the Research Center for Korean Community at Queens College, which was held at Queens College on April 5-7, 2013. This paper was also published in Development and Society, Volume 42, Number One, June 2013. We would like to thank Development and Society for allowing us to repost this article.

Building on insights from Min’s (2010) comparisons between Korean Protestants and Indian Hindus, and my findings of elite freshmen Korean racial insularity (2012), I use data from the Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles (2004) survey to examine the extent to which religion serves to not only preserve ethnicity but also support insularity in young adult 1.5- and second-generation (“second generation” hereafter) Korean Americans. Findings suggest that at the racial level of comparison, second-generation Korean-American endogamy resembles that of white, black, and Latino endogamy; second-generation Korean-American endogamy reflects not only the highest intraracial marriage rate, but also the highest intraethnic marriage rate of all Asian groups in the sample. Further, religious married second-generation Korean Americans have the highest racially homogeneous composition rate in the congregations they attend relative to other racial groups and other Asian ethnicities. In multivariate analyses, these two dynamics of marital endogamy and congregational racial homophily produce strong effects on one another and diminish the unique Korean effect. Findings suggest that these group relational patterns are more evident for second-generation Korean Americans and may have implications for social mobility in a racialized context. 

*This paper was originally presented at the Fourth Annual Conference of the Research Center for Korean Community at Queens College CUNY, April 5-7, 2013. The paper was subsequently published in the journal Development and Society, Volume 42, Number 1, June 2013, pages 113-136. We would like to thank Development and Society for allowing us to post this paper on Korean American Data Bank. Special thanks to Thomas Chung for editorial assistance.

This paper compares an earlier cohort (born and raised in the 1960s-early 1970s) and a later cohort (born and raised in the 1980s-early 1990s) of 1.5- and second-generation Korean Americans in terms of ethnic identity. It used personal identity essays by younger-generation Korean Americans as the major data source. The following four factors affect the formation of ethnic identity: (1) retention of ethnic culture, (2) participation in ethnic social networks, (3) linkages to the mother country and the latter’s global power and influence, and (4) experiences with racial prejudice and discrimination. There were major changes in these four factors affecting ethnic identity from the earlier period to the later period. As a result of the tremendous increase in the Korean population and the number of Korean ethnic organizations, younger-generation Korean Americans who grew up in the 1980s and early 1990s retained Korean culture and maintained ethnic social networks more successfully than the earlier cohort. They also maintained stronger linkages to their mother country, which exercised a greater global influence than in the earlier period. Thus, the Korean community and their home country provided the latter cohort with a more favorable environment for forming their ethnic identity than the earlier cohort. Additionally, the latter cohort encountered a lower level of racial rejection than the earlier cohort. The reduction of racial rejection allowed the later cohort of younger-generation Korean Americans to more voluntarily choose their ethnic identity, with far less inner struggle than the earlier cohort. Today’s younger-generation Korean-American children and adolescents live in an even more favorable environment for voluntarily forming ethnic identity than the 1980s-1990s cohort. 

*This paper was originally presented at the Fourth Annual Conference of the Research Center for Korean Community. The conference was held on April 5 and April 6, 2013, and it was held at Queens College. The conference was co-organized by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health at University of Toronto and the Research Center for Korean Community. The theme of the conference was “Second-Generation Korean Experiences in the United States and Canada.

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