Statistical Reports

statisticsThis category of data consists primarily of different types of quantitative data, including statistics from census and other survey data on growth and settlement patterns, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the Korean population in the United States, and other relevant quantitative data focusing on Korean Americans and Korean immigrant communities. U.S. Census data on the Korean population will be the key component of the quantitative data, and they will be provided in the form of research reports (both short and long). In 2012, the quantitative category of data will focus on results of analyses of the 2010 Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Surveys.

This research report examines data and trends of Korean and Asian immigration to the United States. This is seventh statistical report that we have posted on our Korean American Data Bank. This report utilizes data from The Office of Immigration Statistics' Yearbook of Immigration Statistics (2002-2013) and the Immigration and Naturalization Services' Annual Reports (1965-1978) and Statistical Yearbooks (1979-2001). 

 In this report, Pyong Gap Min examines Korean and Asian immigration data and trends from 1965, the year that the liberalized Hart-Celler Immigration Act was passed, up to 2013. Data examined in this paper include immigration trends for Korea and other major Asian source countries of U.S. immigrants, major destination states for Korean immigrants, different types of immigrants (e.g., new arrivals, status adjusters, international students, specialty-occupation immigrants), and the number of Korean immigrants who became naturalized citizens.

We hope that this statistical report will be of particular use to Korean government agencies, immigration scholars, the Korean and Korean-American communities, and the annual number of Korean visitors to the U.S. by different categories (sightseeing, employees of Korean firms, international students, exchange students, visiting scholars, H1B temporary workers, etc).

This English-language paper, titled "The Intergenerational Differences in Marital Patterns among Korean Americans," was written by Pyong Gap Min (Professor of Sociology at Queens College/CUNY Graduate Center and Director of RCKC) and Chigon Kim (Professor of Sociology at Wright State University). Using U.S. Census data, Min and Kim examine differences in marriage patterns among different cohorts and generations of Korean Americans, including pre-1965 immigrants, post-1965 immigrants, 1.5-generation and U.S.-born Korean Americans, and single- and multi-racial Korean Americans. This paper will be featured as a chapter in a forthcoming book to be published by Lexington Books in late 2014-early 2015. The book will be titled Younger-Generation Korean Experiences in the United States and Canada, co-edited by Pyong Gap Min and Samuel Noh (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto).

This paper examines changes over time in Korean immigrants’ adaptations to the United States, primarily using public documents. It pays special attention to changes that have occurred in the twenty-first century. It focuses on changes in patterns of Koreans’ immigration and settlement, Korean Americans’ demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, patterns of Korean immigrant businesses, business-related intergroup conflicts, and ethnic organizations. The concluding section provides recommendations for Korean community leaders and government agencies in Korea about issues not examined in the text. The two main strengths of this paper are: (1) a comprehensive coverage of several important aspects of Korean-American experiences, using the most recent census data, and (2) detailed examinations of major changes in Korean immigrants’ experiences in the twenty-first century.

*This paper was originally presented at the International Conference on Korean Diaspora Studies, which was held at Korea University on September 28, 2013. Central Hub Project Group for Korean Diaspora Studies at Korea University organized the conference. Global Korean Community Research Center at Korea University, the Research Center for Korean Community at Queens College, and the Young Oak Kim Center for Korean American Studes at UC Riverside hosted the conference.

This research report examines the generational differences in Korean Americans’ socioeconomic attainments in the New York-New Jersey CMSA (Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area) based on the 2006-2010 American Community Surveys. For a better understanding of the generational differences in socioeconomic attainments, it compares the Korean groups with native-born white Americans and other Asian groups in the area (Chinese, Indians, and Filipinos). The paper also highlights gender differences in patterns of the generational differences. It considers educational levels, occupational patterns, socioeconomic conditions, homeownership, and health insurance coverage as the major components of socioeconomic attainments. Generation is divided into first-generation immigrants, the 1.5 generation (those who were born in a foreign country and immigrated to the U.S. at the age of 12 or earlier), and the U.S.-born generation (second or higher generation).    

This research report was originally presented at a lecture at Korean Community Services (KCS) at 35-56 159th Street, Flushing, NY 11358 on Wednesday, February 27, 2013. The talk was a part of the Research Center for Korean Community's ongoing lecture series. 

This research report intends to examine the development of two Korean enclaves in Queens and four suburban Korean enclaves in Bergen County by analyzing the growth of the Korean population in each enclave and the changes in its racial composition from 1980 to 2010. It used decennial census data for 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010, and personal interviews with Korean old timers who lived in those enclaves in the earlier years. Portions of this research report will be included in two of my book projects, one focusing on Korean immigration history in New York and the other focusing on New York Korean immigrants' Korean cultural activities and their effects on New Yorkers. Before they are published as part of the books, I have decided to post this research report on the Korean American Data Bank because it includes important statistical data that shed light on the origins and developments of Korean enclaves in the New York-New Jersey area. The differences in patterns between Korean enclaves in Queens and those in Bergen County have important implications for Korean community empowerment. 

Statistics on Korean Americans’ marriage and the family are important data for Korean social service agencies.  I believe “The Korean American Family,” a book chapter, co-authored by myself and Chigon Kim, provides the most comprehensive statistics on Korean Americans’ marital patterns and family characteristics.  It has been just published in Ethnic Families in America: Patterns and Variations, Fifth Edition, edited by Rooseelt Wright Jr. and his associates (2012).  Many Korean community leaders and staff members of Korean social service organizations may not have time to read the long (50 page) book chapter.  To help these people and meet the need of other lay readers in Korea and the Korean community in the U.S., I summarize here most important statistics from the book chapter.  It includes four tables, all based on census data.  Table 1 provides data on Korean Americans’ patterns of intermarriages and cross-generational in-marriages by generation. Table 2 presents data on Korean immigrants’ family characteristics.  Table 3 shows elderly Korean immigrants’ living arrangements.  Finally, Table 4 shows generational differences in family characteristics.  Readers who want to get a more extended coverage of Korean American families should read the entire chapter included in Ethnic Families in America.  They can also find many sources focusing on Korean immigrant families in my “Annotated Bibliography on Korean Americans” in the reference section of the data bank.

This Statistical Report (Research Report 4) provides an overview of the growth of the Korean population and Korean Americans’ settlement patterns by state and the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA), and by county (borough) in the New York-New Jersey CMSA between 1990 and 2010. It is Research Report 4, completed in January 2012. Research Report 4 is a revision of Research Report 2 released in March 2010. Research Report 2 was based on the 1990 and 2000 decennial Censuses and the 2008 American Community Survey. Research Report 4 revised Research Report 2 in January 2012 by replacing data based on the 2008 American Community Survey with data based on the 2010 Census. The Korean population in the U.S. grew to more than 1.7 million in 2010, with more than 220,000 Korean Americans settled in the New York-New Jersey CMSA. While the Korean population in the five boroughs of New York City grew only by 14% between 2000 and 2010, it increased by 48% in suburban counties. Bergen County and Nassau County achieved the highest rates of increase in the Korean population during the period, respectively by 63% and 48%.

This paper reviews changes in patterns of Koreans’ immigration to the United States between 1965 and 2009 based on annual statistical reports by the immigration office. This review captures changes in the annual number of Korean immigrants, their immigration mechanisms and occupational characteristics, and the proportion of status adjusters. The annual number of Korean immigrants gradually increased for the first ten years, reached the peak between 1976 and 1990, gradually decreased in the 1990s, and slightly increased in the 2000s. The proportion of Korean immigrants in professional/technical and administrative/managerial occupations was drastically reduced in the 1970s and the 1980s, but has gradually increased since the early 1990. Over the past five years, Korean immigrants in these specialty occupations and their family members comprised the majority of annual Korean immigrants. Those who had previously entered the U.S. on various non-immigrant statuses and changed their status to permanent residents (status adjusters) comprised the vast majority of Korean immigrants during recent years. This is due to the presence of so many Korean non-immigrant temporary residents, including international students, in the United States.


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